The introduction of randomization in the design and analysis of algorithms for matrix computations (such as matrix multiplication, least-squares regression, the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD), etc.) over the last decade provided a new paradigm and a complementary perspective to traditional numerical linear algebra approaches. These novel approaches were motivated by technological developments in many areas of scientific research that permit the automatic generation of large data sets, which are often modeled as matrices.
In this talk we will outline how such approaches can be used to approximate problems ranging from matrix multiplication and the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) of matrices to approximately solving least-squares problems and systems of linear equations. Application of such methods to data analysis will also be discussed.