### Abstract

For a predicate $f:{-1,1}^k \mapsto {0,1}$ with $\rho(f) = \frac{|f^{-1}(1)|}{2^k}$, we call the predicate strongly approximation resistant if given a near-satisfiable instance of CSP$(f)$, it is computationally hard to find an assignment such that the fraction of constraints satisfied is outside the range $[\rho(f)-\Omega(1), \rho(f)+\Omega(1)]$.

We present a characterization of strongly approximation resistant predicates under the Unique Games Conjecture. We also present characterizations in the mixed linear and semi-definite programming hierarchy and the Sherali-Adams linear programming hierarchy. In the former case, the characterization coincides with the one based on UGC. Each of the two characterizations is in terms of existence of a probability measure on a natural convex polytope associated with the predicate.

The predicate is called approximation resistant if given a near-satisfiable instance of CSP$(f)$, it is computationally hard to find an assignment such that the fraction of constraints satisfied is at least $\rho(f)+\Omega(1)$. When the predicate is odd, i.e. $f(-z)=1-f(z),\forall z\in {-1,1}^k$, it is easily observed that the notion of approximation resistance coincides with that of strong approximation resistance. Hence for odd predicates, in all the above settings, our characterization of strong approximation resistance is also a characterization of approximation resistance.

Joint work with Subhash Khot and Pratik Worah.